Blog9 464x290 - 8 Basic Nutrients that Your Veins Need to Stay Healthy
Prevention Venous

8 Basic Nutrients that Your Veins Need to Stay Healthy

Proper nutrition is a key to a healthy body and strong immune system. We need to eat the right food to keep our bones, heart, mind, and even our veins healthy. Venous disease is affecting more than 100 million people in the United States. Thus, eat foods that are rich in these 8 basic nutrients […]

Blog8 464x290 - Common Causes of Spider Veins in the Face
Treatment Venous

Common Causes of Spider Veins in the Face

Most people are concerned about their physical appearance, especially their face. They spend money and time in maintaining their good looks. Men and women invest in skin care products and makeup to always look handsome and beautiful. For some, plastic surgery is the solution. According to World Health Organization, more than 230 million people undergo […]

Blog4 464x290 - Understanding the Causes of Varicose Veins

Understanding the Causes of Varicose Veins

One of the most bothering things that keep your legs from being flawless is varicose veins. They appear as snake-like bulges in the legs and in the thighs. According to a study, around 25% of all adults develop varicose veins. They are usually dark purple or blue in color. But you may be wondering, how […]

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How to Keep Our Heart Healthy

Blog10 - How to Keep Our Heart Healthy

Heart health is very important for all reasons. The heart, being the center of the cardiovascular system is responsible for blood circulation and transportation of oxygen all throughout the body. Without the heart, there is no life. That is why it is very important that we take care of our cardiovascular health.

mm1 - How to Keep Our Heart Healthy

Be Physically Active

Exercise is very important. To keep our heart healthy, it is important to do cardiovascular exercises like running, cycling, and swimming. According to, walking for 150 minutes a week is healthy for the heart. Apart from aerobic exercises, it is necessary to do muscle-strengthening exercises that work all major muscle groups.

Eat Healthy

A healthy diet and proper nutrition are important for a healthy heart. Choose foods that are low in sodium, saturated fat, and trans fat. You should eat foods that are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids, fiber, antioxidants, and all essential vitamins and nutrients. This includes fish, oatmeal, potatoes, citrus fruits, tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables.

Always Rehydrate

Water is the most important in keeping our body healthy. Dehydration causes strain in your heart. Thus, you need to drink enough amount of water every day to keep up with the demands of your body. Our heart is constantly pumping about 2,000 gallons of blood daily. Without water, our heart cannot function well.

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Control Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a major threat to the heart. According to American Heart Association, high blood cholesterol increases your risk to coronary heart diseases. To reduce cholesterol, you should be mindful of what food you take. Eat foods that are rich in Omega-3 fatty acids like Salmon and other oily fishes.

Sleep Well

Sleep is essential for a healthy heart. In one study, people who slept 7 hours and less a night had less calcium in their veins and arteries which contribute to heart diseases. It is recommended that an average human shall sleep at least 9 hours daily. To have a sound sleep, proper nutritional and regular exercise are needed.

Cut Sugar

Diabetic patients have a greater risk of heart diseases. Diabetes can lead to high blood pressure and cholesterol which affect your heart. To prevent this condition, cut your sugar intake. Avoid eating sweet foods. Instead, eat fruits and vegetables, and use honey or other natural sweeteners.

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Quit Smoking

If you are a smoker, it’s about time to quit smoking. Cigarette smoking does not just affect your lungs but increases your risk to drying of coronary heart disease.

8 Basic Nutrients that Your Veins Need to Stay Healthy

Blog9 - 8 Basic Nutrients that Your Veins Need to Stay Healthy

Proper nutrition is a key to a healthy body and strong immune system. We need to eat the right food to keep our bones, heart, mind, and even our veins healthy. Venous disease is affecting more than 100 million people in the United States. Thus, eat foods that are rich in these 8 basic nutrients that our veins need to stay healthy.

q3 - 8 Basic Nutrients that Your Veins Need to Stay Healthy


Fiber is needed for balanced nutrition and normal digestive function. Fiber helps reduce the risks of disorders like high cholesterol and other factors that affect the vascular and venous system. A high fiber diet can help prevent varicose veins which weaken vessel walls and valves. Rich sources of fiber are oatmeal, wheat, fruits, and vegetables.


Foods that are rich in antioxidants promote the healthy vascular system. Antioxidants also get rid of toxic substances that affect the normal functioning of veins in the body. Rich sources of antioxidants include coffee, blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, and cherries.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is important in the manufacturing of elastic fibers in our body – elastin and collagen. These elastic fibers make our veins strong and flexible, repair arteries and veins, and prevent capillaries to break and leak. Vitamin C can be found in orange, melons, papaya, and grapefruits. There is also a wide selection of vitamin C supplements.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E helps in preventing platelets from sticking together. Vitamin E deficiency promotes the formation of blood clots. Thus, it is important to eat foods that are rich in vitamin E to maintain proper blood circulation. Rich sources of vitamin E are eggs, nuts, seeds, sweet potatoes, and wheat, among others.

Vitamin K

According to a 2007 study published in the Journal of Vascular Research, vitamin K deficiency leads to the development of varicose veins. Vitamin K activates certain proteins which keep veins healthy and strong. Vitamin K1 can be found in spinach, mustard greens, beet greens, dandelion greens, and kale, while vitamin K2 can be found in fermented dairy products.


Bioflavonoids relieve pain that is caused by varicose veins. These nutrients strengthen the vessel walls and valves and reduce blood leakage. Bioflavonoids are commonly found in dark green leafy vegetables, dark berries, onions, garlic, blueberries, and grapes, among others.

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Niacin helps keep veins healthy and strong. This vitamin maintains the balance of cholesterol levels in the body. It also strengthens the vascular system which consists the veins, arteries, capillaries, and blood vessels. Foods rich in Niacin are chicken, turkey, tuna, liver, and peanuts.


Of course, hydration plays a vital role in keeping out optimum health. By drinking water, you provide oxygen in your body which is essential in blood circulation. Water is also needed to flush away the toxin in our body. An average human should take at least eight glasses of water a day.

Lastly, eat foods that have less sodium content. Sodium contributes to water retention which can damage the veins. Reduction of sodium intake also strengthens the tissue in your body.

Common Causes of Spider Veins in the Face

Blog8 - Common Causes of Spider Veins in the Face

Most people are concerned about their physical appearance, especially their face. They spend money and time in maintaining their good looks. Men and women invest in skin care products and makeup to always look handsome and beautiful. For some, plastic surgery is the solution.

According to World Health Organization, more than 230 million people undergo plastic surgery every year worldwide. Last 2016, Americans spent more than $16 billion on cosmetic surgeries. Most of them are adults who experience wrinkles, skin pigmentation and spider veins in the face.

According to the American Academy of Cosmetic Surgery, 50 to 55% of women complain about spider veins in their face. Spider veins are smaller veins that appear in various parts of the body, especially in the face. They are usually red, purple and blue in color and are twisted and turned.

What Causes Spider Veins on Your Face?

There are various factors that cause the appearance of spider veins in your face. They usually appear around the nose or under the eyes.

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As people grow older, the veins and skin in the face tend to weaken which makes the appearance of spider veins visible. Aging affects the function of the capillaries which make them weak and broken. These damaged capillaries will manifest in the face.


According to Dr. Peter Lawrence, around 40% of the world population experience spider veins. Unhealthy lifestyle is a major culprit of their appearance. This includes eyestrain, insomnia, lack of exercise and most especially, stress.

Free Radicals

Too much sun exposure can weaken and damage the veins and capillaries which result to spider veins. Smoking, the major cause of premature aging affects the arteries and veins. Pollution and exposure to toxic substances contribute to spider veins.

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Rosacea is a skin disease that causes redness and pimple outbreak in the face. Prolonged irritation or inflammation of the skin promotes spider veins. Apart from rosacea, eczema and other skin conditions can contribute to the appearance of spider veins.

Venous Deficiency

Lastly, venous disease is considered the most common cause of spider veins. Venous deficiency is caused by a poor blood flow in the veins which damages the valves and vessel walls. The underlying causes of venous deficiency include blood clot formation, obesity, hypertension and more.

How to Remove Spider Veinson the Face?

Fortunately, there are medical procedures available to remove the spider veins on your face.


In this procedure, the surgeon will inject a chemical solution into the affected veins. The solution will close the veins and will redirect the blood to healthier veins. After a few weeks, the spider veins will gradually fade.

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Laser Surgery

Another procedure that does not involve cutting or injecting is through laser surgery. The surgeon will use laser light energy to burn the veins. Spider veins will instantly fade or disappear.

However, if you do not have a budget, prevention is always better than cure. Perform facial exercises to promote proper blood circulation in your face. Also, proper nutrition is a must.

What are the acne herbal supplements?

At times what happens is, no matter how much you take care of the skin and prevent from indulging in anything that could bring about the skin condition Acne, it still comes about. Feelings of frustration then are hard to deal with and all the stress just makes the condition worse and more pimples are grown on the skin due to it. What to do in this case is turn to the best treatment plan that one can get; the herbal supplements.

If you are looking for under the counter acne treatments we recommend you read this Proactive reviews before you buy any other acne product (Also read Exposed Skin Care reviews).

What are the herbal supplements?

The companies that make them use the most natural of ingredients without using any heavy chemicals and this way, the body and the face get the naturally fast treatment method rather than the dermatologic tested creams and the facial lotions that could only make conditions worse in the years to come even if they show great results then. The herbal supplements are made from natural herbs and anything that is from Mother Nature would benefit a human being more. The herbs alter the human body into making the acne disappear. The process behind it lies in the neutralization of the acid present in the body but we don’t need to get into so many scientific details.

Why should one use the herbal supplements?

The benefit to this treatment plan is, there are no side effects! It is simple and secure and you do not even have to worry about any sort of plaster or cream to put on the face because these natural acne treatment kits have the best reviews and are made from the best of things. It is better to treat the acne in a natural process. It also makes the skin more fresh looking and herbs are generally good for the human body too.

Why are herbal supplements the best treatment process?

Herbs used in these supplements have quite a few advantages for all humans. They have anti inflammatory effects that reduce the pimples that seem like small mountains on a person’s face, especially if it is found in the middle of a cheek. These herbs also have anti-toxic effect and anti-bacterial affects that help the healing process immensely. Herbs are natural healers and in the old Chinese days, herbs were all they used for every disease present and not just a skin condition like acne. Maybe without knowing it could be that other things are also being treated in your body that you did not know about and it all happens just by taking these natural herbals supplements.
Where can to get herbal supplements from?

Are they safe?

They are very safe. The name itself should show how safe they are. These natural acne treatment kits are available online pretty easily. If you take the time and search and find a company suitable to you, the kit will come to you in no time. It will appear on your doorstep because most natural herbal supplements are available online rather than in medical stores. They are usually capsules that come with instruction and mostly the capsule has to be taken once a day, preferably with meals. Other than that, there is no specific requirement. Some companies also offer a money back guarantee within a time period; such is the confidence of this product.


In other words, herbal supplements are the way to treat your acne and rid yourself of this severe condition. Acne is not a thing to be taken lightly because if not taken care of in time, it can lead to a permanence that might never go away. Herbal supplements do not harm so revert to it without wasting any time if the pimples are turning into a more dangerous form. You should, however, do some research on finding the best herbal supplement to treat your acne as herbal supplements can be several types such as drops, pills, patches, acne-combination therapies, kits or systems. Since acne is a problem that has multiple symptoms and several issues, occurring simultaneously, it is best to use a acne therapy that will include multiple components to address all issues and counter every symptom and grade of acne. You are, thus, encouraged to visit such sites that provide research-based reviews of such herbal acne therapy systems.

When it comes to exploring the question of how to get rid of acne, the author has some evidence-based options that can really and quickly help you get rid of acne at an affordable cost and without any side effects.

Read more about acne here

How to Treat and Manage Pulmonary Embolism?

Blog7 - How to Treat and Manage Pulmonary Embolism?

Pulmonary Embolism is a life-threatening condition that is commonly caused by a blood clot in the lungs. The blood clot restricts blood flow and decreases oxygen levels in the blood which will affect other organs in the body. According to Mayo Clinic, one-third of people who have pulmonary embolism dies because of not providing immediate medical attention.

The most common symptoms of pulmonary embolism are shortness of breath, chest pain and cough. If you experience these symptoms, immediately consult your doctor.

Pulmonary embolism can be treated with medication, medical procedures, and therapies. The primary goal is to remove the blood clot, prevent the blood clot from getting bigger or stop new clots from forming.


Anticoagulants or blood thinners are being taken to people with pulmonary embolism to decrease the ability of the blood to clot. Anticoagulants do not remove clots but delay the enlargement and formation of blood clots. Anticoagulants come in pills, injection, or through an IV tube. Treatment may last from three to six months.


Thrombolytic therapy is used in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Thrombolysis medicines are being taken to dissolve blood clots. Thrombolytic causes severe bleeding, thus it should be used in life-threatening situations. Apart from PE, thrombolysis is used in strokes and ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This treatment is not used in patients with hypotension or low blood pressure.


Embolectomy can be surgical or through the use of a catheter. The primary goal of this procedure is to remove the emboli which block blood circulation. In cases of thrombi (blood clots), thrombectomy is used. This procedure should be used for patients with sub-massive acute pulmonary embolism and are experiencing major myocardial necrosis, new hemodynamic instability, severe right ventricular dysfunction or worsening respiratory failure.

Vena Cava Filters

The inferior vena cava is one of the largest veins that is responsible for returning deoxygenated blood to the heart. However, in cases of pulmonary embolism, filters should be installed in the inferior vena cava to trap the emboli. Inferior vena cava interruption is only applicable to patients with acute venous thromboembolism, massive PE, and patients having complications with anticoagulants.

Compression Therapy

Compression therapy is also advised for patients to prevent pulmonary embolism from occurring. The use of compression garments promotes healthy blood circulation in the veins. It is advised for patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which causes pulmonary embolism. Usually, patients are asked to wear compression stockings with a pressure of 30-40 mm Hg at the ankle for two to three years.

Monitoring and Consultation

Long-term monitoring is an essential part of the recovery of the patient with PE. Basically, the length of the treatment depends on the severity of SE and presence of risk factors. If there are no risk factors, therapy can last for six months. However, if risk factors are present, it will be extended for at least four to six months. Moreover, patients who are experiencing early symptoms of blood clots, even varicose veins should consult a doctor to assess the health situation of the blood circulation.

How to Prevent and Treat Varicose Veins?

Blog6 - How to Prevent and Treat Varicose Veins?

Around 25% of adults have varicose veins. It is a form of a venous disease that is usually benign and harmless, however, can be threatening in the long run. Last 2012, a 66-year old woman died due to excessive bleeding of the varicose veins. Thus, as early as now, you should be conscious of venous diseases and perform preventive measures to avoid acquiring varicose veins.

Lifestyle Change

Lifestyle change or simply being conscious of how you do things is the best prevention. This can delay varicose veins from forming, reduce pain, and prevent varicose veins from getting worse.

  • Avoid standing for long periods of hours without taking a break. However, if standing is part of your routine, make sure that you move or walk every single minute.
  • Sitting also promotes varicosities. When you sit, avoid crossing your legs.
  • When you lie on the bed, make sure to raise or elevate your feet and legs above your heart level to promote proper blood flow.
  • Avoid wearing super tight clothes, especially tight underwear and shorts that affect the blood flow in your waist, groin, and legs.
  • If you are obese or overweight, it’s time for you to lose weight.
  • Exercise regularly. It will improve your blood circulation.

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Compression Therapy

Compression therapy is one effective way of improving blood circulation. It can be done through wearing compression stockings, socks or tights. It promotes proper blood circulation in the veins. However, not all are advised to undergo compression therapy. One must be evaluated through Doppler investigation.

Medical Procedures

There are also various medical and surgical procedures available that remove or close varicose veins and allow healthy blood circulation in the body.


This procedure uses a liquid chemical to close off varicose veins. The chemical irritates the varicose vein, causing it to scar and gradually close off.


If sclerotherapy is used to close off varicose veins, microsclerotherapy uses the same procedures but targets the smaller ones – spider veins.

sd2 - How to Prevent and Treat Varicose Veins?

Laser Surgery

Basically, laser surgery makes use of laser light energy to remove varies veins. It does not involve the injection of chemicals or cutting.

Endovenous Ablation Therapy

In this procedure, the doctor will make a tiny cut in your skin and insert a device that will heat up the inside of the varicose vein through radio waves, causing it to close off.

Endoscopic Vein Surgery

This procedure is used in severe cases when varicosities are causing skin ulcers. The doctor will make a cut into your skin and insert a device that has a camera and surgical device to close off the varicose veins.

Ambulatory Phlebectomy

To do this procedure, the doctor will numb the area around the varicose vein. He will then make a cut in your skin and manually remove the varicose veins.

Vein Stripping and Ligation

During the operation, the patient will be put to sleep. The doctor will then make tiny cuts in your skin and remove the varicose veins.

Transilluminated-powered phlebectomy

This new treatment uses endoscopic transilluminator to see the veins underneath your skin. The surgeon will remove the varicose veins through a suction device.

The Benefits of Compression Therapy

Blog5 - The Benefits of Compression Therapy

Varicose veins are among the common problems of adults, especially women. Basically, they do not look attractive in legs and thighs, but they are commonly not benign and do not require treatment. However, it is recommendable that you take preventive measures to avoid developing varicose veins in some parts of your body in the future.

Varicose veins are results of poor blood flow in the veins. So, the key is to make sure that your blood circulates properly through the veins. One way is to undergo compression therapy that you can perform at the comfort of your home.

How does Compression Therapy work?

Compression therapy has been done by athletes before. They rely on compression socks and shorts after a workout to reduce muscle soreness. On the other hand, compression therapy is also used to increase blood flow activity in the lower body. Compression garments like socks, socks, shorts, and tights provide vein support by applying pressure to the body part. They are effective in stretching out vein walls to improve blood circulation, thus eliminate swelling.

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Who is allowed to undergo Compression Therapy?

Sufferers of venous diseases are the main candidates for compression therapy. Venous diseases result in the formation of blood clots or varicose veins. It occurs when the valves of the veins do not function properly which affect the blood flow.

Compression garments are available in pharmacies and even in online shops. However, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) suggests undergoing Doppler Ultrasound first before purchasing compression garments. It is a non-invasive test that estimates the blood flow through your blood vessels. It will tell you if you are fit to use compression garments.

It is also advised if you consult your doctor first. They will give you the proper medications or will advise you actions to do in addressing your problem with varicose veins or other venous diseases. They will also recommend you custom made compression garments to ensure that you will get the expected correction.

What are the Benefits of Compression Therapy?

Using compression garments have good effects to the body. Basically, it increases blood flow while decreasing blood volume in the veins. It also reduces refluxing affected veins and eliminates pathologically elevated pressure. It also has good effects on your tissues. It increases the drainage of noxious substances, reduces inflammation and promotes faster muscle recovery. Through compression, muscle aches, swelling, and fatigues will be minimized. Moreover, it improves movements of tendons and joints.

compress - The Benefits of Compression Therapy

How do I use and maintain compression garments?

Usually, doctors will advise you to wear your compression garments every day to obtain proper correction. You have to wear them in the all throughout the day and take them off when you go to bed. They can really be uncomfortable especially during a hot season.

Compression garments are usually replaced every three months, depending on the frequency of use. Of course, you have to buy two to three pairs so that you can use another pair if you wash the used pairs. If your compression garments get damaged, make sure to replace them as they no longer have an effect.

Understanding the Causes of Varicose Veins

Blog4 - Understanding the Causes of Varicose Veins

One of the most bothering things that keep your legs from being flawless is varicose veins. They appear as snake-like bulges in the legs and in the thighs. According to a study, around 25% of all adults develop varicose veins. They are usually dark purple or blue in color. But you may be wondering, how can a person get varicose veins?

Overview of Varicose Veins

Varicose veins, also known as varicosities occur when you veins become enlarged and appear like bulges in some parts of your body, especially your legs. Basically, veins return deoxygenated blood from the other parts of the body to the heart and lungs. However, when these veins become too much pressured, its walls thicken and twist, thus forming varicose veins.

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Cause of Varicose Veins

There are various theories that try to explain why varicosities occur in veins. According to research, defective or damaged valves cause the formation of varicose veins. However, it is still unclear why valves become inefficient or dysfunctional. Some experts suggest that inherited problems may cause the valves to weaken. Further, certain factors, like age or immune system problems affect the health of these valves.

A healthy vein allows the blood to flow smoothly towards the heart. The blood is prevented from going backward by a series of valves. However, if these valves do not function properly, the blood will flow backward and will accumulate in the vein, causing it to swell and enlarge, forming varicose veins.

Risk Factors

There are certain factors that will increase your risk of acquiring varicose veins. These include:

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The elasticity of the veins decreases as a person gets older. With this, the valves will weaken which will allow the blood to flow backward instead of going directly to the heart.


Pregnancy increases blood volume, however, it decreases the flow of blood into your legs and your pelvis. The natural circulatory change occurs to support the development of the fetus. However, it has unfortunate side effects in your veins.


Women are the most vulnerable to developing varicose veins. Hormonal changes during menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause cause the vein walls to weaken. Moreover, taking birth control pills and other hormones may increase your risk to varicose veins.

Family History

If some of your family members had varicose veins, there is a chance that you will also develop this condition.

v3 - Understanding the Causes of Varicose Veins


Basically, when you gain too much weight, there is too much pressure for the veins to carry the blood to the heart. Thus, obesity affects the health of your veins.

Standing for Long Periods of Time

This is considered as one of the factors that really cause varicose veins. If you are standing, especially for long durations, you are not helping your vein to carry the blood towards your heart. Standing makes it hard for the valves to transport the blood upward.

Rarely, varicose veins are acquired because of other underlying health conditions, including ulcer, deep blood clots that swell and bleeding, among others.

Venous Disease and Its Different Categories

Blog3 - Venous Disease and Its Different Categories

It is our primary duty to take care of our health. Being healthy means having a healthy mind, heart, and everything that makes up our body, including our veins. Veins are responsible for carrying blood from the body toward the heart. Without these veins, our blood will not circulate well which will affect our total functioning.

However, there are various threats that our veins may encounter. These are called venous diseases or impairments and disorders that may affect our venous system.

What are Venous Diseases?

Our body is composed of a network of veins that can be compared to the branches of a tree. There are small and larger veins. Veins carry blood from the rest of the body to the heart. However, increased pressure and other risk factors tend to weaken our veins which lead to venous disease or also called as venous reflux.

According to Vein Health Care Center, approximately half of the U.S. population are affected by venous diseases. Venous disease can manifest physically like varicose veins, but some forms of venous diseases do not have visible signs. It can affect both men and women of all ages.

throm - Venous Disease and Its Different Categories

Common Types of Venous Diseases

A venous disease takes a lot of forms, however, it can be categorized into two broad categories: thrombosis and insufficiency.


Thrombosis happens when there is a blood clot formation in the venous system. This phenomenon is called thrombus. The blood clot will affect the blood flow, disabling veins to carry blood to the heart.

Superficial Thrombophlebitis

Blood clots that appear in the superficial or skin-deep veins are often associated with inflammation or phlebitis. These are effects of underlying disorders, most especially cancers. The combination of the clot and inflammation is called Superficial Thrombophlebitis. In this case, the vein may be swollen and may feel warm and tender. However, this is not very dangerous. Physicians treat its symptoms by application of moist and heat, anti-inflammatory medications and leg elevation.

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Blood clots that are formed in the veins deep within the leg part are more difficult to diagnose. This condition called Deep Vein Thrombosis is characterized by leg pain and swelling. It may be a result of a normal blood clotting or of a specific event, including surgery or cancer. Without treatment, it will lead to pulmonary embolism which is characterized by shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and fever. Almost 200,000 of American die of Pulmonary Embolism every year.


Vein insufficiency refers to the infraction in the blood flow activity because of the abnormality in the vein wall which leads to inadequate venous drainage. It can be classified into superficial and deep venous insufficiency.

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Varicose Veins

The superficial venous insufficiency is characterized by varicose veins which manifest externally. Varicose veins are snake-like formations just beneath our skin.

Chronic Venous Insufficiency

On the other hand, chronic venous insufficiency is caused when there is an inadequacy in the drainage from the veins deep within the limbs. It is characterized by leg pain, swelling, skin discoloration and coarsening of skin texture.

Understanding the Structure and Function of Veins

Blog2 - Understanding the Structure and Function of Veins

One of the most important in our body are the veins. They provide our body access to “life”. With dysfunctional veins, we may not be able to function properly and may also lead us to death.


Veins are elastic blood vessels that carry blood from various parts of the body to the heart. Most of the veins carry deoxygenated blood while the others carry oxygenated blood. Veins are often closer to the skin. They are also less muscular than arteries which take oxygenated blood from the heart to all parts of the body. Veins are also more difficult to trace than arteries.

vein - Understanding the Structure and Function of Veins

Structure of a Vein

A vein consists of three layers: the tunica adventitia, tunica media, and tunica intima. The tunica adventitia is the strong external covering of veins which consists of connective tissues and elastic fibers. The tuna media is the middle part which consists of smooth muscles and elastic fibers. Lastly, the tunica intima is the inner layer and has the direct contact with the blood flow. It consists of smooth endothelial cells and has a hollow center through which the blood flows. These three layers also compose the artery.

Types of Veins

The veins can be categorized into four main types. On the other hand, there are certain veins that connect one main type of vein to another.

Pulmonary Veins

This set of veins carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. Pulmonary veins take a vital role in the pulmonary circulation and respiration.

Systemic Veins

Systemic veins carry the deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body back to the heart. The two largest veins are found in the systemic venous system. vein2 - Understanding the Structure and Function of Veins

Superficial Veins

Superficial veins are close to the surface of the skin. They are not paired with an artery unlike other types of veins. They are physiologically important for the cooling of the body.

Deep Veins

Deep veins are located deep in the body and come with corresponding arteries. Deep veins transport the vast majority of the blood. Because they are found deep in the body, complications in deep veins are difficult to operate.

The veins that directly connect the superficial veins to the deep veins are called communicating veins, whereas the perforator veins drain from the superficial veins to the deep veins.

Vena Cavae: The Largest Veins in the Body

The vena cavae, divided into superior and inferior vena cava are the two largest veins in the body. They are part of the systemic venous system. The superior vena cava can be found in the upper chest region and is formed by brachiocephalic veins. It is also bordered by aorta and pulmonary arteries. They drain blood from theupper body parts (including head, neck, and chest). On the other hand, the inferior vena cavatransports deoxygenated blood from the lower body parts (including legs, pelvis, abdomen, and back) to the right atrium of the heart.

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